This essay concerns a theoretical interaction of hypothetical groups A, B, and C.
For the presented interaction, certain assumptions will be made. These follow.
Certain traits characterize each of these groups. All the traits involve a certain level of preferability or desirability. So, the attributes that characterize each group have a certain level of desirability. Everyone views trait desirability similarly.
Traits of Group A
Group A excels in preferability of the physical traits X and Y with the desirability levels of these traits being much greater in A's than in the other groups. In preferability of other physical attributes, group A is equal to the other groups.
In emotional makeup and personality, A's are high in aesthetic sensitivity. They are objective, and they like order. They are good at organizing. These qualities are manifested in group A societies in which there is a high quality of life. A's have high ideals by which they try to live.
A's are intelligent. They are extremely creative and are by far the most creative group. They are responsible for almost all the technology utilized in the world inhabited by A's, B's, and C's, almost all the scientific knowledge, the greatest art, and are the major influence in the social ideas and organizing techniques of that world.
On a more negative note, A's tend to feel superior to B's and C's. Also, they can be guilt prone. Their actual feelings often conflict with their ideals. These factors can lead to neuroses and hypocrisy.
Traits of Group B
Group B is by far the largest of the three groups. B's are the most fecund group. Generally speaking, B's are less intelligent than are A's and cannot organize societies as well, especially large-scale societies. The general quality of life in B group societies is not high. Many - though not all - B's feel inferior to A's and/or are envious of A's. For these reasons, the B's who react in these ways are hostile toward A's.
B's are not as guilt prone as are A's. Also, B's engage in much less emotional denial than is the case with A's.
Traits of Group C
Group C is by far the smallest of the three groups. C's are a bit more intelligent in some ways than are A's. However, while C's excel in certain intelligences, they are lacking in certain other intelligences and abilities. They are lacking in creativity, foresight, judgement, objectivity, and empathy. One of the major traits of C's is their ability to work together, which they do in order to promote the interests of their group. One of their primary undertakings is to take possession of wealth created by others. All of the wealth owned by C's was created by A's.
C's are relatively low in aesthetic sensitivity. So, they derive less emotional pleasure from aesthetics. In this respect, they derive less emotional pleasure from appreciation of beauty, nature, knowledge, nobility, etc. This makes the emotional pleasure stemming from a sense that they are more adequate than others proportionately more important to C's than this is for A's and B's (though this is important in all groups). Too, C's are inherently more sensitive in matters pertaining to self-esteem and feelings of adequacy than are A's and B's (though all groups are sensitive in this area). This increases the importance to C's of achieving feelings of superiority and avoiding feelings of inferiority. The relatively greater significance to C's of attaining feelings of greater adequacy and worth in comparison to others and of avoiding feelings of lesser adequacy and worth in comparison to others also makes C's quite prone to envy and resentment, anxiety about feeling inadequate or being made to feel inadequate relative to others, and anger and hostility.
The culture of C's involves a tenet which pronounces that C's are superior to A's and B's. Much emphasis is placed upon this tenet in C society. The result of this is that the only emotional response to A's and B's that C's can experience while remaining true to the criteria for personal adequacy created by this maxim is a feeling of superiority to A's and B's. Other emotional responses would indicate that A's and B's were viewed as more nearly equal to, as equal to, or as superior to C's, none of which is allowed by the precept. So, emotional responses to A's and B's other than a sense of superiority would constitute a failure to meet the criteria for adequacy stemming from the C superiority tenet and, so, cause feelings of inadequacy for not meeting these criteria.
The maxim of C superiority subscribed to by C's has an effect upon the practise of reciprocity in the dealings of C's with A's and B's. In this regard, C's may not feel that they need follow the Golden Rule in dealing with A's and B's. Following the Golden Rule in dealing with A's and B's would imply that A's and B's were equal to C's. Therefore, compliance with the Golden Rule in these dealings would be contrary to the tenet of C superiority. So, compliance with the Golden Rule in these dealings could lead to feelings of inadequacy for not meeting the expectations stemming from the superiority precept. On the other hand, not complying with the Golden Rule in dealings with A's and B's would imply that A's and B's were not given credence and were lesser. So, not complying with the Golden Rule in these dealings is in keeping with the maxim of C superiority and leads to feelings of adequacy for matching the expectations stemming from the maxim. All this said, it must be noted that C's do comply with the Golden Rule when there are practical benefits for them to do so - these practical benefits including the avoidance of angry responses from others. When there are no such benefits to be gained by complying - including when they are in circumstances in which they can deflect and, so, do not have to worry about anger from others - they do not comply with the Golden Rule with regard to A's and B's. Through this noncompliance, they aim to match the standard for adequacy stemming from the C superiority tenet, which is that they feel superior to A's and B's.
The Central Factor in the Interaction of A's, B's, and C's
The central factor in A, B, C interactions is that A's, B's, and C's all view A's as being the foremost group. This is because A's excel in physical traits X and Y and are at least equal to B's and C's in the other physical traits; excel in artistic, philosophic, scientific, and social accomplishment; and excel in social ordering as reflected in the form of their societies. Seeing A's as the most adequate group is an instinctive, basic, and involuntary response to A's by B's, by C's, and by A's themselves.
This instinctive, almost universal view of A's as being foremost - and which forms the basis for the negative feelings many B's and C's experience relative to A's, feelings which will be discussed below - is unchangeable. This view cannot be changed by B's and C's through any actions or means, nor can it be changed by A's themselves through any actions or means.
Other Important Factors in the Interaction of A's, B's, and C's
Because B's and C's view A's as the most adequate and foremost group - and again, this instinctively and involuntarily - many B's and C's feel inadequate relative to A's. They may also feel a degree of envy toward A's. These reactions may result in some hostility toward A's on the part of these B's and C's.
These are responses that exist independently of feelings and attitudes on the part of anyone else, including A's. However, the feelings and attitudes of A's concerning B's and C's - or more accurately, the assumed feelings and attitudes of A's concerning B's and C's - can have a very pronounced effect on B's and C's. The reason for this is that, since A's are instinctively and involuntarily viewed as the most adequate group, the opinions of A's are generally given, again involuntarily, high credence by B's and C's. So, the attitudes, opinions, views, feelings, etc. of A's - or what B's and C's assume these to be - can have a decided effect upon B's and C's.
Since A's are generally viewed as being the topmost group, B's and C's are quite likely to assume that A's feel superior to B's and C's. This causes offense and anger. B's and C's react to A's in a negative way on the basis of trait comparison, and this automatically and involuntarily, with the negative responses very likely compounded by the concomitant assumptions that A's feel superior; but they are apt to perceive A's as purposely causing these negative responses. They are likely to view these negative responses as being a result of A's harboring ill-will and disrespect for B's and C's along with a desire to debase and harm B's and C's. This furthers offense and anger.
The negative feelings that B's and C's have in response to A's include the following:
The much larger portion of the negative feelings B's and C's have with regard to A's is made up of the negative feelings noted in the last two points. Throughout the remainder of this essay, the negative feelings that B's and C's have in relation to A's will most often be termed 'feelings of inadequacy, etc.' because the view of A's as the foremost group and the feelings of inferiority that this view commonly gives rise to in B's and C's form the basis of the totality of the negative feelings that B's and C's have in regard to A's. The phrases 'negative feelings', 'negative responses', and 'negative reactions' will also be used.
The view held by B's and C's of A's being the topmost group and the feelings of inadequacy, etc. that B's and C's have in relation to A's stemming from this view are largely denied and unconscious. Hostility toward A's is apt to be more conscious, though this too may be denied to some extent. B's and C's do know that they respond negatively to A's and feel angry toward A's, but they explain this and find justification for these feelings through the mythology concerning A's that constitutes a face-saving measure to explain the negative reactions to A's and that is publicly promoted, primarily by C's. These beliefs will be discussed further on.
It needs to be reiterated that the reasons that are publicized to explain negative responses to A's on the part of B's and C's - these reasons being, in general, that A's have wronged and mistreated B's and C's - are not the primary reasons for these negative responses. For the most part, the negative feelings arise simply as a result of the existence of A's.
The Goal of B's and C's
B's and C's take actions relative to A's in order to rectify their feelngs of inadequacy, etc. with regard to A's. This is probably the main driver in B and C activities in relation to A's. Just as B's and C's do not consciously recognize or wholly recognize consciously that they reflexively view A's as being the most adequate group and that they experience feelings of inadequacy, etc. as a result of this view, they do not consciously recognize that their activities in relation to A's are primarily motivated by their attempt to remedy their negative feelings toward A's. On a conscious level, they cite reasons for their behavior relative to A's that are different than the actual or primary reason. (These reasons are part of the beliefs and ideas promulgated regarding B/C and A relations.) Nevertheless, the primary motive for B's and C's in their relations with A's is to surmount their feelings of inadequacy, etc. relative to A's and to gain a sense of parity with A's or even of superiority to A's.
The Activities of C's
The interaction of A's, B's, and C's is affected in a major way by the activities of C's. Consequently, these activities will be a primary focus here.
Many B's and a larger proportion of C's than is the case with B's hold feelings of inadequacy, etc. with regard to A's. However, not only do a larger proportion of C's respond this way, but C's also respond with more intense feelings of inadequacy, etc. This is due to C's psychological satisfaction being based almost entirely upon the level they perceive their own adequacy as being relative to others, with neglible psychological satisfaction deriving from aesthetic appreciation (of beauty, nature, life, etc), thus making the former key in the derivation of their emotional gratification; and to their genetic predisposition to be more sensitive in regard to matters pretaining to feelings of adequacy and self-esteem; points that were indicated earlier. The negative response of C's to A's is also much exacerbated in C's on an intrinsic basis by C's not matching the criteria for adequacy stemming from the tenet of C superiority due to C's having feelings of inadequacy, etc. relative to A's. So, in addition to C's having negative feelings in relation to A's on the basis trait comparison and of perceived A attitudes, C's response to A's makes C's feel intrinsically inadequate due to their not meeting the expectations of their own superiority maxim - and this considerably because the response to A's is exactly the opposite of the response mandated by the maxim.
C's act to remedy the feelings of inadequacy, etc. that come about in response to A's. They are much more apt to initiate such activities than are most B's. The attempt to recify the negative reactions to A's experienced by C's and B's is the main driver in interactions of B's/C's with A's. C's act as the main initiaters, encouragers, and implementers of this effort.
Activities of B's and C's to Meet Their Goal of Equality/Superiority to A's
In their effort to remedy the feelings of inadequacy, etc. that B's and C's experience vis-a-vis A's, B's and C's do two things. These are the following:
In addition, B's and C's seek association with A's so that they can implement the above.
(Note that B's and C's also seek association with A's in order to garner the practical benefits of A societies. Too, they seek association with A's in order to enhance their standing and status among other B's and C's. However, the efforts to gain a sense of equivalency with or superiority to A's through gaining the approval, acceptance, etc. of A's and/or through venting hostility upon A's is the motive focused upon here and is considered the major motive in B's and C's seeking association with A's.)
C's are, as stated, the leaders in the efforts to bring about ascendancy of B's and C's relative to A's. In order to do this, they act to make it possible for B's and C's to associate with A's and, once this association is attained, to receive A approval, acceptance, etc. and/or to visit hostility upon A's.
So, in regard to the efforts of C's carried out to improve their standing relative to A's (again, this motive is unconscious), C's first gain association with A's. They then act to acquire influence in in A societies. They do this by working together take possession of as many of the assets of A's as they can. Desiring influence and sway (in order to establish and to further to the greatest extent possible their unconscious aim), C's especially seek to take possession of one asset of A societies that they see as holding great promise in this regard. This is the mass media.
Once in control of the mass media in A societies, this control giving C's the capability to reach a great number of individuals and to give these only the information that C's want to give them and to stifle any information that C's do not want them to have, C's utilize this media to establish a set of beliefs. In general, these ideas are that B's and C's are equal to A's - and, perhaps, that B's and C's, especially C's, are superior to A's. The assumption (unconscious), here, is that the adoption of these beliefs will bring equality/superiority relative to A's about as reality.
As was noted earlier, because A's are viewed as foremost and, so, authorative, the opinion of A's concerning B's and C's can be a very important factor in determining the level of feelings of adequacy and the positivity of self image of B's and C's. Therefore, it is especially important that A's adopt the beliefs that are propounded.
It might be noted for interest that when C's gain association with A's, A's are often willing for C's to move into influential positions in A group societies because C's are high in certain cognitive abilities and skills. These capabilities include those which facilitate certain achievements such as gaining educational credentials or success in business, for example. It is commonly believed that such abilities and skills demonstrate that one possesses all the qualities that insure that one will perform well in a leadership role. A's are quite baffled, then, when the behavior of C's in positions of influence in A group societies reflect C's -
C's are lacking in areas which are crucial for effective leadership and in which A's tend to be high. However, because C's are high in those certain capacities and skills generally thought to be indicative of high leadership ability, A's often deny to themselves and others and gloss over the true quality of C performance in positions of influence and the actual degree to which C's possess those attributes that are necessary for good leadership.
Beliefs and Views Promoted by C's Through the Mass Media
In this section, the beliefs, views, and tenets that are promoted concerning relations between B's/C's and A's will be examined. These ideas, beliefs, etc. constitute the mythology mentioned earlier.
The ideas and views put forth by C's by way of the media include the following:
Other ideas and beliefs are also advanced by C's.
Perhaps the most tricky belief promoted concerns the explanation of why B's and C's would so greatly desire and strive for association with A's considering how negative A's are said to be. The view promoted in this regard must offer an explanation for this while at the same time retaining, if not reinforcing, the unconsciousness of the real reason why B's and C's seek association with A's. A primary idea propounded is that - B's and C's seek association with A's in order to gain the practical benefits of A group societies. This is a workable explanation and partly true. Of course, it also constitutes an admission that B's and C's cannot provide these practical benefits for themselves. However, this aspect of this tenet is conveniently overlooked. Also, this explanation says that rather than try to provide these practical benefits for themselves, B's and C's would rather put up with the claimed negativity of A's in order to gain these benefits. This is also not addressed. Other more spurious reasons are also put forth to explain why B's and C's seek association with A's. All these beliefs, though, mask the actual primary motive for this activity, which is to gain a sense of parity or better with A's.
(For a discussion of the motives underlying separation from or association with those toward whom there is a negative response, the reader is referred to the essay - Negative Responses That Bring About Efforts to Separate and Negative Responses That Bring About Efforts to Associate.)
Adoption of the Beliefs and Views and Enforcement of Behavior Consistent With the Beliefs and Views
In order to encourage the adoption of the propounded beliefs and views, especially by A's, and to bring about behavior based upon these beliefs, particularly on the part of A's, further tenets are promoted. These further views concern the characteristics of individuals who do and who do not accept the promoted beliefs and ideas. In regard to A's, these further views hold the following to be true:
It is important to those promoting the views and ideas being discussed here that the above two precepts be widely accepted and believed by the general public - A's, B's, and C's. This being the case, individuals, especially B's and C's, will feel justified in and will feel encouraged to punish A's, as well as B's and C's, who do not accept and behave in accordance with the propounded ideas. It can also be acceptable to reward A's, and will be very acceptable to reward B's and C's, who accept and behave in accordance with the propounded ideas. Those delivering these rewards and punishments enforce on a personal basis in the real world compliance by A's, as well as by B's and C's, with the beliefs and ideas put forth through the media. The punishments spoken of can range from disapproval to vilification to physical violence. The rewards for A's might include a measure of approval; intrinsic feelings of morality; and actions making it possible for an individual to gain or to retain certain social positions. The rewards for B's and C's are similar, though perhaps more pronounced. Note that once the beliefs, views, and ideas that are promoted are widely accepted, simply the potential for reward and, particularly, for punishment are generally sufficient to enforce compliance.
Adoption of the ideas in question is based primarily upon the control of infomation by C's through their control of the mass media as was noted earlier. Thus individuals receive that information which C's believe furthers the goal of B's and C's to gain ascendancy relative to A's. Individuals are not given information which does not further or which hinders B's and C's in achieving this goal. Most then accept the promoted views because there is a lack of alternate information. Also, adoption of the ideas is furthered by the acceptance of the ideas by prominent personages such as governmental leaders, celebrities, academics, religious leaders, etc. The media especially focuses upon and gives positive attention to prominent personages who accept and espouse the promoted views. Too, individuals seeking prominence accept and espouse the ideas so that the media will focus positive attention upon them. Conversely, those prominent personages who do not accept the promoted views will be criticized and presented very negatively by the media. They will almost certainly lose their positions. And an individual who seeks a leadership position and who does not accept the propounded ideas will either be ignored by the media or will be presented negatively, either of which will almost certainly prevent that individual from gaining the position sought. As well, due to the tendency to retain and to select leaders of the various social institutions from among those who accept and comply with the mythology promoted by C's through their control the media, institutions and organizations come to accept and espouse, as institutions and organizations, these beliefs. The entities in question here include governments, schools, colleges, religious organizations, businesses, social service groups, etc. This further encourages adoption of the promoted views. Of course, the fact that the mass media itself, which is widely considered authoritative, espouses and advocates these ideas greatly encourages and furthers adoption of these beliefs.
One of the most significant effects of the beliefs, viewpoints, and precepts promulgated by C's is that, once these ideas are adopted, A's will allow B's and C's to associate with them. This interaction is basic to the dual activities that B's and C's take in order to establish a sense of parity or better with A's - gaining the approval, acceptance, respect, attention, etc. of A's and/or venting hostility upon A's. Adoption by A's of the ideas put forth by the media also leads to the passive acceptance by A's of B's and C's conducting these activities relative to A's.
The Relationship Between B's and C's
The relationship between B's and C's in the effort to establish a sense of parity or superiority relative to A's is based upon mutual help.
From the C perspective, C's ally themselves with B's in the effort in question because B's also feel inadequate relative A's and would like to surmount these feelings (although B's generally do not respond as negatively to A's as do C's). At any rate, C's, being the initiators of the widescale effort to achieve the stated end encourage B's -
C's promise and assure B's that B's will gain feelings of parity or better with A's by engaging in the advocated activities. C's also promise and assure B's that B's will attain all the practical benefits of A group societies if B's engage in these activities. It should be noted that, in general, C's feel superior to B's and that the standing that B's feel they have relative to A's is not actually a major concern for C's. The actions that C's encourage B's to take vis-a-vis A's and the promises they make B's in regard to the results of these actions simply constitute a method, albeit an important method, in the effort by C's to bring about their own ascendancy relative to A's. In other words, C's utilize B's in C's own attempt to gain ascendancy in relation to A's.
From the B perspective, B's ally themselves with C's because they see C's as fighting to help them gain a sense of equivalency with or even superiority to A's. B's believe and accept the promises made by C's that if B's engage in those activities advocated by C's that this goal will be realized. B's also believe the promise by C's that B's will garner all the practical benefits of A group societies if B's engage in the advocated activities. B's look upon C's as their leaders in all this.
The Relationship Between C's and Two Groups of A's
C's also establish relations with two other groups. These other groups are made up of A's. One of these consists of A's who dislike A's. The other consists of A's who do not care about A's.
A's who dislike A's are generally individuals who were mistreated at a young age - primarily emotionally, but perhaps also physically - by other A's who they viewed as authoritative. This mistreatment generated hostility in them toward those who had mistreated them and who they saw as authoritative. Through time, they came to associate A group authorities, A group societies, and, perhaps, A's in general with those who had mistreated them, and they became hostile toward these. They support the efforts of B's and C's in relation to A's because they see the plight of B's and C's as being somewhat analogous to their own. Supporting the efforts of B's and C's is primarily a way for them to vent hostility upon and to get back at A's. This motive is unconscious, however. Their conscious reason is to establish justice for all, and they see themselves as promoting humanitarianism. B's and C's - most especially C's - encourage and laud the activities and the support of these A's.
With regard to A's who do not care about A's, C's strive to make available to these A's those things that these A's want - social position, material gain, defining them as moral, etc. - if these A's act or function in those ways that further the efforts of B's and C's to achieve a sense of equality or superiority relative to A's.
Given all the assumptions above, the interactions of A's, B's, and C's will be examined.
B's and C's associate with A's in order to bring about a sense of equivalence with or superiority to A's by gaining the approval of, acceptance of, attention from, respect of, etc. A's and/or by venting hostility upon A's. The other factors presented previously act to facilitate this effort. The approval, acceptance, etc. of A's bespeaks that A's view B's and C's as equal to A's. The assumption is, then, that by A's declaring in this manner that B's and C's are equal to A's, that B's and C's will feel equal to A's. The hostile measures taken against A's are seen as a way of besting A's, and of thus bringing about feelings of parity with A's or, more likely, feelings of superiority to A's.
In general, activities to gain the acceptance, approval, etc. of A's are the B and C activities that are most commonly carried out in person. Venting hostility upon A's is more commonly carried out by way of the media. However, acceptance, respect, etc. are much advocated by the media; and hostile measures - emotional or physical, overt or subversive - will be conducted in person when it is thought that these can be gotten away with.
It needs to be reiterated, here, that the instinctive and involuntary sense of A's as the most adequate group cannot be changed.
Given that -
B's and C's undertake activities, benign and hostile, with respect to A's in order to establish that they are equivalent to or superior to A's.
These activities are effective initially. The actions result in a sense that can range from near parity with to superiority to A's, and this sense overrides the instinctive view and the responses stemming from the view that A's are the most adequate group. However, because this view of A's is reflexive, based as it is on the fact that A's excel in the physical traits X and Y, as well as because of the general skill of A's, this view will, in time, override the perception of equivalence with or superiority to A's established by the actions. So, the feelings of inadequacy, etc. with regard to A's returns. At this juncture, further actions are taken, with the same result. And so on.
As this process repeats and as B's and C's fail to gain a lasting sense of equality, much less superiority, with respect to A's despite all the effort being put into achieving this sense, then basic feelings of inferiority relative to A's is likely to increase due to a worsening sense of incapacity in regard to A's. So, instead of the efforts that are taken in relation to A's eliminating the negative responses to A's, these efforts lead to an increase in the negative responses to A's.
Because of this, frustration and hostility toward A's increases. As the efforts of B's and C's continue to be ineffective, resulting in increasing feelings of inadequacy, etc., the actions of B's and C's become increasingly hostile. An irony may occur in that the increasing feelings of inadequacy, etc. that B's and C's have relative to A's may cause B's and C's to strive for more than simple equality with A's; but rather, to strive for superiority to A's, which, if gained, would be a way to gain revenge upon, get back at, and vent hostility upon A's. An already unattainable goal becomes ever more so. As it becomes increasingly difficult for B's and C's to reach the desired standing relative to A's even on a very temporary basis; as the baseline sense of inferiority to A's worsens because of the ineffectiveness of the actions taken in relation to A's; and as hostility toward A's is compounded, measures taken in regard to A's continue to become increasingly hostile.
After a time, the B's and C's are apt to reach the conclusion (unconsciously or consciously) that the only way to solve the problems that they have with regard to A's is for A's to be eliminated. Actions are implemented that could lead to this end. For example, B's are encouraged, primarily by C's through the exercise of the influence that control of the mass media gives C's in A group societies, to relocate en masse to A group societies in the hope (conscious or unconscious) that A's will be submerged by B's and be eliminated through interbreeding.
Another irony is seen here in regard to C's. Because of the great importance to C's concerning their feelings of adequacy and standing relative to others, they become obsessed with the situation concerning A's and with solving their problems with regard to A's. The solution to these problems would inevitably involve the attempt (conscious or unconscious) to eliminate A's. At a certain point, the actions of C's - actions in which C's use B's in various ways in relation to A's - become such that these would lead to the elimination of A's, and this without question, if these activities were not countered. C's do not consider what effects the elimination of A's would lead to for them once this were accomplished. In this - and actually, in all the efforts that C's take in relation to A's for the purpose of gaining ascendancy relative to A's - C's low ability levels in foresight and judgement play a significant role.
The activities undertaken by B's and C's in relation to A's in order to achieve feelings of equality with or superiority to A's - and which are activities promoted by C's through the mass media in A group societies - do not permanently lead to feelings of parity or superiority relative to A's. In fact, these actions exacerbate feelings of inadequacy, etc. in relation to A's. Also, these activities are detrimental to A's, especially considering that the actions taken by B's and C's vis-a-vis A's become increasingly hostile because of the increasing desperation of B's and C's to achieve a lasting sense of parity or superiority relative to A's and the increasing anger toward A's on the part of B's and C's due to their not being able to accomplish this. Again, this actual though subconscious aim cannot be achieved because of the instinctive and involuntary view of A's as being the most adequate group due to physical traits X and Y being seen as most preferable in A's and as a result of A's excelling in various competencies.
So, more effective measures pertaining to B/C and A interaction should be undertaken. These might include the following:
These factors may be difficult for B's and C's to face initially, but facing the same could lead to B/C and A relations being dealt with more realistically and to ways for B's/C's and A's to interact that would minimize negative feelings on the part of B's and C's and that would minimize detriment to A's.
Such measures as these would make relations between the groups more positive.